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Consultation is a collaborative process involving two peer or collegial professionals in a non-hierarchical relationship. Consultation can be specified as a problem-solving process that typically involves four components:

1. Problem Identification: the consultant delineates and operationally defines the client’s problem(s), ensures that the problem is indeed the client’s, and proceeds with problem analysis.

2. Problem Analysis: where a comprehensive understanding of the problem becomes the consultative focus. In addition, the consultant’s problem analysis may focus on the consultee’s professional knowledge, skill, confidence, objectivity, and interpersonal interactions.

3. Intervention: occurs when the consultant recommends specific programs or techniques to alleviate the problem, regardless of whether it is the client’s or the consultee’s.

4. Evaluation: assesses the consultee’s satisfaction with the consultation process and its positive effect on the identified problem.